Weleda Product Ingredients

Below is an A to Z list of the Weleda product ingredients with information on source and uses.

Arum Maculatum (Cuckoo pint or Lord & Ladies) A potency of this plant is used for its positive action on mucus membranes
Aesculin is contained in the bark of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) from where it is isolated. It has astringent properties and helps to reduce vascular permeability
Alcohol The majority of plant extracts are water/alcohol extracts. Fermentation grade ethyl alcohol produced by fermenting plant sugars, is used for its extractive and preservative properties. Weleda do not use Propyl alcohol Alcohol denat. Is used in toiletry production where there is a risk of misuse due to the alcohol content. The alcohol is ‘denatured’ by the addition of a bitter tasting substance called Bitrex
Alcohol denat. See Alcohol
Algin is made from brown algae (seaweed). Algin serves as a natural gel base and is a thickening agent. when used in skin care it has a moisture preserving effect and gives the skin a pleasant feeling
Aloe barbadensis See Aloe vera
Aloe vera This famous gel is extracted from Aloe barbadensis and is widely known for its caring and protective properties, the gel is also cooling and helps sooth irritation. The central quality of Aloe vera is its ability to store moisture. This desert plant collects moisture in its large lance shaped leaves to ensure its survival through droughts. Their waxy outer coating prevents evaporation of the moisture which is stored inside the leaves in a special gel, well known for its soothing properties. The Aloe vera used by Weleda is grown organically to biodymamic standards in Sothern Spain and Brazil
Ammonium Glycyrrhizate extracted from liquorice root, this substance forms strong gels and stabilises emulsions. It is refreshing and sweet tasting – hence its use in toothpastes
Apricot Kernel Oil The Apricot tree, Prunus armeniaca, originates from China where it was cultivated over 4000 years ago. It was introduced to Southern Europe by the Romans and into England in Henry VIII’s reign. This delicately fragranced oil is cold pressed from fruit stones. Apricot oil is very similar to Sweet Almond oil but far less expensive. It is a light, mild, non-greasy oil which is quickly absorbed leaving the skin smooth. It benefits all types of skin, being emollient and nourishing. It is especially recommended for dry, sensitive, mature or ageing skin
Aqueous extract See Extract
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) Used when necessary to help balance the pH of a product, also has preservative properties
Beeswax (Cera Flava) from honey-bees, cares and protects particularly sensitive skin. It protects without inhibiting the skin’s breathing. Provides consistency in the emulsion
Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) a soothing ingredient which generally stimulates and has astringent properties. When used in skin care products it helps promote the loss of waste products through the skin. (In accordance with Anthroposophic understanding of nature it has the capacity to control excess anabolic processes and contributes to the normalisation of skin functions). A variety of extracts are used in different products such as tincture, distillate and juice
Burdock A root extract of Arctium lappa is used for its cleansing properties. Burdock helps to remove toxins which could lead to skin problems
Calcium Carbonate forms the base of the chalk based toothpastes. It is simply ground marble rather than the more commonly used mined source which has to be chemically refined and precipitated. It cleanses gently yet thoroughly, produces a smooth paste and helps stabilise the product
Calendula (Calendula officinalis) The common Pot Marigold is grown throughout the world as a garden plant and is one of the most useful herbal remedies. Calendula is gentle and soothing and is used for its antiseptic and healing properties. It has a long history of use in Indian, Arabic and Greek medicine and is used in such large quantities in Russia that it has earned the nickname of “Russian Penicillin”. Used in skin and hair care products for its gentle soothing, protecting properties, also leaves the skin feeling supple
Candelilla wax Obtained from Candelilla plants of the Euphorbiacaea family Candelilla cera is used to improve the hardness of a wax product. It is smoother than and counteracts the brittle nature of Carnauba. Used in the food industry as a protective coating for citrus fruits.
Carnauba wax Obtained from the leaves of Copernica cerifera, Carnuba wax is a hard wax with a high melting point. It is used in Lip Balm to provide a protective coating to the lips
Carrageenan (Chondrus crispus) A gum obtained from seaweed used as a thickening agent in gels and lotions. (A natural thickening agent)
Carrot (Daucus carota) cares for intensely dry, rough and sensitive skin, supports regeneration; helps neutralise the effects of the physical signs of exposure to sunlight
Cellulose (Plant cellulose is used as a suspending agent and as a thickener
Cetearyl alcohol A vegetable based emulsifying agent and emollient derived from Palm kernel oil
Cetrimonium Chloride See detergents
Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) has a soothing action; in skin care products it is often used with Calendula, the combination having a caring effect which supports regeneration of the skin
Cholesterol Is an emulsifying agent which is extracted from the wool of sheep
Citric acid Occurs naturally in fruit juice and is used to adjust the pH balance where necessary
Citrus grandis An extract of Grapefruit seed in vegetable glycerin used as a natural preservative. The potential was discovered with the presence of undecomposed grapefruit seed in a compost heap
Cocamide DEA See Detergents
Cocamidopropyl betaine See Detergents
Cocoa Butter (Theobroma Cacao) a vegetable oil which becomes solid at room temperature; is pressed out of the seeds of the tropical cacao tree; cares for and protects tender skin against environmental influences
CTFA The American Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. The lists of ingredients on our Body Therapy Range packaging were drawn up using CTFA naming system. As packaging is reprinted it is updated to the INCI system (see INCI)
Cucumber Extract (Cucumis sativus) refreshing, invigorates and cools the skin
Denatured Ethanol See Alcohol
Detergents A blend of detergents is carefully selected according to the action required. Those currently used are:- Cetrimonium chloride, Cocamide DEA, Cocamidopropyl betaine, Disodium cocoamaphoacetate, Disodium laureth sulphosuccinate, Lauryl Betaine, Lauryl glucoside, Sodium cocoamphoacetate/Disodium laureth sulphosuccinate, Sodium laureth sulphate. These detergents are derived from plant oils, usually coconut oil.
In nature there is only one naturally occurring substance which will foam. This is Saponin, the extract from the Soap Wort plant. Unfortunately this substance is very poisonous and not appropriate for family home use, which is why shampoos are commonly made from detergents.
Detergents (contd) Harsh detergents, together with other added chemicals, can strip the natural oils from the hair and scalp and even damage the hair itself. They may also cause the sebaceous glands to produce more oil than needed making the hair greasy.
The Weleda shampoos are based on as mild a blend of biodegradable detergents as possible, to gently cleanse without stripping away the natural oils. The careful blending of detergents also greatly reduces any irritancy potential from any individual constiuent
Disodium cocoamaphoacetate See Detergents
Echinacea The healing properties of Echinacea angustifolia have been long known to the American Indians who have used it for centuries to promote wound healing and reduce inflammation. Recent research has shown that Echinacea stimulates mobility of lymphocytes, (white corpuscles which fight infection), increasing cell metabolism and stimulating the destruction of bacteria and other harmful particles
Esculin See Aesculin
Ethanol Extracts of herbal ingredients are produced in several ways. The production method is chosen according to the form and function of the finished product and the nature of the herb, whether it is fresh, dried, soft or hard material.
Aqueous extracts. These are concentrated water extracts, usually a hot process for dried plant material. (A process not unlike preparing tea).
Distillates. The plant material is heated, usually in water/alcohol, to boiling point. The volatile vapour, (the distillate), is condensed on a cold surface and collected for use.
Oil extracts. Here the plant material is gently ‘cooked’ in a vegetable oil. For example Calendula Baby Oil, where Calendula flowers and Chamomile flowers are extracted into Sesame oil.
Tinctures These are alcohol/water extracts, these can be either hot or cold extractions depending on the nature of the herb (The majority of extracts used by Weleda are tinctures)
Glycerin/Glycerol During the process of saponifying vegetable oil, soap and glycerin are produced. Therefore glycerin is an ingredient of a hard soap without being added, in other product formulations vegetable glycerin is an added ingredient. Glycerin is found in every fat and helps form gels. When used in skin care it regulates the absorption and release of water in the skin and is also softening and smoothing on the skin
Glyceryl Laurate A soap like emulsifying and emollient agent derived from vegetable glycerin and plant derived Lauryl alcohol
Glyceryl Linoleate is made from vegetable oils and vegetable glycerin; acts as an emulsifier. (Vegetable oils are triglycerides, i.e. they consist of glycerin and three fatty acids. This substance is a result of vegetable oil reacting with glycerin, so that only 1 to 2 fatty acids are bound to one glycerin)
Glycerol oleate A naturally derived ester prepared from Vegetable Glycerol and Oleic Acid (from Olive Oil). It is used as an emulsifier in creams
Glyceryl Stearate SE A naturally derived ester prepared from Vegetable Glycerol and Oleic Acid (from Olive Oil). It is used as an emulsifier in creamsA naturally derived ester prepared from Vegetable Glycerol and Oleic Acid (from Olive Oil). It is used as an emulsifier in creams
Goat’s milk (Caprae lac). The emollient properties of milk are well known. Used in shaving cream to help smooth the skin
Grapefruit The volatile oil is an active ingredient in Deep Cleanser. The oil is expressed from the fresh peel of Citrus grandis and helps to tone the skin, it is traditionally used for oily skin and acne
Guar gum A swelling/gelling agent often used in foods. Obtained from the seeds of the Cyanopsis tetragonoloba bean
Gum Benzoin (Siam) Is a balsamic resin obtained from the incised stem of a tree (Styrax benzoin) found in what was Siam. It is used as a natural preservative and as perfuming agent
Hectorite is a clay from the montmorrillonite group, a complex, natural, silicaceous material. It has a strong affinity to water and is used as a swelling and gelling agent
Hops Extract (Humulus lupulus) is made from hop blossoms and is a calming herb
Horse Chestnut Extract (Aesculus hippocastanum) has many properties. It has astringent, toning properties, hence its use in dental care. When used in hair care products Horse Chestnut helps add body and bounce to the hair. The bark is high in Aesculin which counters the effects of the shorter wavelengths of sunlight, this action can be demonstrated by its fluorescence under UV light, hence its use in sun creams
Horseradish Extracted from the leaves of Cochlearia armoracia. The plant is very high in Silica and Sulphur, both essential for the healthy growth of the hair and scalp
Hydrated Silica Used as an excipient (an ingredient which forms the base of a product), When used in creams and gels it helps to regulate consistency. When used in skin care products Silica relieves itching and strengthens tissue
Hydrolyzed Beeswax is made from saponified beeswax by neutralisation. It has the same skin care capacity as beeswax and provides consistency an emulsion
INCI International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient. Ingredient lists are currently drawn up with reference to this EC naming system
Jojoba Oil (Buxus chinensis) from Mexico, this precious liquid vegetable wax is obtained from the seeds of the evergreen desert bush. The liquid wax is remarkably stable against heat and ultra-violet rays. When used for skin care is very easily absorbed, has a moisture preserving effect and makes the skin soft as velvet. In toothpastes it improves appearance and texture. In hair care products vegetable oils act help replenish the hairs natural oils and in conditioners are a constituent of the emulsion
Kaolin a type of clay named after the Kao-ling mountains in China. Absorbs perspiration and toxic substances, as well as soothes the skin
Krameria Extract Used in dental care products and prepared from the root of Rhatany, the “Toothbrush Root” of South America, it is included for its astringent properties, easing swelling and redness and helping to strengthen gums
Lanolin Sometimes called Hydrous wool fat is a purified, waxy material obtained from the wool of sheep. It is a pale yellow, unctuous substance with a characteristic odour. Lanolin has the special ability to absorb at least twice its own weight in water, thereby making it ideal to help moisturise the skin. It has a very similar chemical composition to the skins own exudate and therefore has a natural affinity with the skin.
Only hypo-allergenic lanolin is used by Weleda, the pesticide residues having been reduced to levels below those for food limits. When used in hair care products lanolin helps prevent dryness of the scalp and helps protect the hair. A necessary addition to Pine Bath Milk to form the emulsion
Lanolin alcohol A lanolin wax used as an emulsifying agent. It is a mixture of sterols and alcohols obtained from wool fat
Lauryl Betaine See Detergents
Lauryl Glucoside See Detergents
Lavender Incorporated into Weleda Body Therapy preparations in the form of the essential oil. A variety of essential oils are used depending upon the aroma required.
Lavender acts warmingly on the skin to stimulate and harmonise its functions. It has recognised antiseptic and disinfectant properties and is traditionally used for burns, boils and muscular aches.
Lavender is perhaps best known for its relaxing action
Lecithin Soya bean lecithin derived from non genetically-modified soya bean oil is a natural emulsifier and anti-oxident. Lecithin regulates the permeability of the cell walls. Lecithin is also a natural thickener and helps to make the product smooth in use and spread easily
Lemon Citrus limonum is well known for its cleansing and astringent properties. In both skin and hair products lemon not only removes excess oil but also helps balance sebaceous activity. In deodorants the astringent properties of lemon mean that it helps reduce perspiration. It also gives a light refreshing fragrance. Lemon is used in a variety of forms; tincture – made from whole fresh lemons, juice – squeezed from fresh lemons and essential oil – expressed from the fresh peel
Lemon Balm International name for Balm mint, Melissa officinalis. Melissa comes from the Greek for ‘honey bee’ and Lemon balm is reputed to have the same healing properties as honey and royal jelly. Gerard said that the herb “comforteth the heart and driveth away all sadness”. A water/alcohol extract is used in Lemon Balm Shampoo to help soothe and balance the activity of the scalp
Lysolecithin is a natural emulsifier derived from non genetically-modified soya bean lecithin. It cares for the skin and helps keep it soft and supple
Macadamia Oil The oil obtained from the nuts of the Australian macadamia tree, Macadamia Terniflolia. Macadamia oil is one of the only plant oils that contain high amounts of palmitoleic acid, a substance found in sebum the skin’s natural exudate, and therefore has great affinity to the skin. It has been found that as the aging process proceeds the level of palmitoleic acid in the skin gradually drops. The application of macadamia nut oil is believed to replenish the amount of palmitoleic acid in older skin. This oil is one of the most penetrating oils known and is absorbed quickly by the skin
Magnesium Aluminium Silicate (Fuller Earth) a natural clay also called Bentonite; has a moisture binding effect and, as a natural thickener, stabilises emulsions
Magnesium Sulphate This salt works in conjunction with detergents or soaps to thicken a product
Mallow (Malva Sylvestris) The name Mallow comes from the Latin, Malva, meaning soft and emollient, reflecting the feel and properties of the leaves. The Common Mallow, as the name suggests, is a prolific plant found throughout Europe, western Asia and North America. It grows wild in dry meadows and pastures, on wasteland and by the side of roads; it flowers from June through to September. Although, like the Marsh Mallow, the Common Mallow is best know for its medicinal properties soothing the throat and chest, it also has the ability to soothe rough and dry skin
Malt Extract Has an action similar to that of honey. It is soothing and healing, it is a bactericide and is more stable than honey. Malt extract is a concentrated water extract of partially germinated barley seed
Matricaria Extract See Chamomile Extract
Musk Rose Oil (Rosa Moschata) Rose Mosqueta, as this wild growing rose is commonly known in Chile, grows on the foothills of the Andes, the rosehips are harvested from February to March. These are then sorted, dried and the skin removed to produce the seeds, which are ground to produce this precious oil. Although harvesting the rosehips in this area is difficult, it is well worth it as the isolated regions in which this wild rose grows have not been affected by environmental pollution and can therefore produce ecologically sound pure fruit. Musk Rose Oil is rich in skin-caring fatty acids. Rosehip seed oil contains important nutritional substances that are well tolerated by the skin. It also helps to stimulate the skin’s natural functions, leaving it looking smooth and fresh
Myrrh (Commiphora Myrrha) An extract in the form of a gum resin from the bark of the Arabian Myrrh tree. Myrrh has been used since antiquity astringent and antiseptic properties
Natural essential oils Precious substances obtained from entire plants or parts of plants. The fragrance substances are among the finest materials produced by plants and encapsulate the properties of the specific plant. All essential oils help maintain peripheral blood circulation which contain nutrients that; assists the skin`s excretory and breathing functions; enhance regenerative skin processes; and when used in toothpaste helps keep the oral cavity healthy. Aromatic oils are also renowned for their preservative properties
Nettle A water/alcohol extract of Urtica dioica, the common stinging nettle is used in Rosemary Shampoo. Traditionally used for falling hair and dandruff, Nettle also stimulates the circulation
Oil extract See Extract
Orris Root Extract (Iris germanica) made from the rhizome; helps balance moisture content of the upper layers of the epidermis; helps maintain elasticity
Palm Acid more commonly called Palmitic Acid. This substance is a fatty acid derived from palm-nut oil (Palm kernel oil). The oil is extracted by crushing the nuts of Elaesis guineedsis. Palmatic acid is both emollient and emulsifying.
Pansy (Viola tricolour, Heartsease) Sometimes called Wild Pansy this plant has toning properties ,helps keep the skin soft and supple. Especially beneficial for rough/cracked skin.
Peanut oil is a fixed oil expressed from the Arachis hypogaea seed. Weleda Germany purchase organic oil from America. (The oil has to be refined to meet pharmaceutical standards and thereby looses its organic status). Peanut oil is a light high quality vegetable oil which is extremely stable. It softens and smoothes the skin and is tolerated by most skins. With regard to peanut allergy:- Refined peanut oil does not contain peanut proteins the substances which cause the reaction. In June 1998 The Department of Health issued a statement saying that “refined oil in food and medicinal products is without risk to sensitive individuals”. If you require any further information ask Weleda for details of research carried out.
Peruvian balsam Obtained from the sap of the tree Myroxylon pereirae is predominantly a fragrance ingredient but has been used to treat dry skin and eczema
Pine Pine Needle Extract (Oil of Pinus sylvestris) is obtained by steam distillation from the needles of Scotch Pine. This oil helps relieve fatigue, nervous exhaustion and stress related conditions, hence its use in Pine Bath Milk to invigorate and refresh
Potassium Cocoate/ Olivate/ Palmate/ Stearate The vegetable soap content. Emulsifying and cleansing agent. Soft soaps made from Coconut oil/Olive oil/Palm oil/Stearic acid (extracted from vegetable oil).
Rice (Oryza sativa). Used in the form of a hot water extract of brown rice which is rich in Silica and has a beneficial effect on the skin. Silica is found in relatively high quantities in skin, hair and nails. Silica is a standard Homoeopathic remedy for skin, hair and nails.
Anthroposophical medicine recognises that Silica has an affinity with the nerve/sense system where it brings clarity and form, the latter being particularly relevant in skin care.
Rose Most commonly used as Rose essential oil from Rosa Centifolia, arguably the most precious of all essential oils, certainly one of the most expensive. Rose oil is a very gentle, delicate oil, and is one of the few recommended for use on babies. The comprehensive therapeutic usage of Rose Oil includes such imbalances as depression, insomnia, and nervous tension.
With regard to skin care Rose oil can be used on all skin types but is especially beneficial for dry, sensitive, or mature skins. Rose Oil is said to induce happiness, sweet dreams and well being - a tonic for both body and soul.
Rosa Centifolia, commonly called French, Morroccan or Indian Rose, or Rose Maroc, has a higher yield of essential oil than Damask Rose. An extract from Rose is also used and has the same properties as the essential oil.
Rosemary The evergreen leaves of this shrubby herb, Rosmarinus Officinalis, are about one inch long linear, dark green above and paler and glandular beneath. The flowers are small and pale blue. The Ancients were well acquainted with this shrub, which had a reputation for strengthening the memory, hence its use as an emblem for fidelity for lovers. The pungent somewhat camphoraceous odour of Rosemary reflects its therapeutic properties - it is a tonic and stimulant. It is traditionally employed in hair-lotions, “for its odour and effect in stimulating the hair-bulbs to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness........It forms an effectual remedy for the prevention of scurf and dandruff”. (A Modern Herbal - Mrs M Grieve F.R.H.S.) Because of its revitalising, stimulating action Rosemary is used in many Weleda products. It is used either as a tincture or an essential oil, Rosemary tincture is prepared from the dried leaves whilst Rosemary Essential Oil is steam distilled from the whole flowering plant
Rose Wax The waxes left behind after the extraction of the essential oils from the flowers of the Bulgarian Rose (known as Damascena). These waxes are moisturising and emollient, very gentle on the skin and still retain a faint fragrance of Rose, thereby helping the product perfume
Sesame Oil Extracted from the ripe seeds of Seamum indicum Sesame oil is a light, easily absorbed oil tolerated by most skins. It smoothes easily over the skin and nourishes and moisturises
Shea Butter (Butyrospermum Parkii) a precious vegetable oil obtained by cold pressing of the nuts of the African Sheabutter tree; is easily absorbed by the skin and has a smoothing and protecting effect and creates a velvety feeling of the skin. (Improves consistency of the product and is lighter than Cocoa Butter)
Silica is used as an excipient (an ingredient which forms the base of a product). In creams and gels silica helps to regulate the consistency. From an Anthroposophical perspective Silica is thought to strengthen tissue
Silver Sulphate is a naturally occuring salt consisting of silver and sulphate. (In accordance with the anthroposophic understanding of nature it helps support the healthy regeneration processes of the skin)
Sodium Beeswax saponified beeswax, serves as a natural emulsifier, a more powerful one than plain beeswax, used to bind the oil and the water together. It has the same skin care capacity as beeswax
Sodium Bicarbonate/ Sodium Chloride are some of the salts used in toothpastes. These salts have toning, stimulating properties and also help reduce soreness and inflammation. The osmotic action of salt (that of drawing fluid outwards) stimulates gum tissues, improving capillary circulation and thereby removing toxic substances. The resulting increased saliva flow promotes a self-cleansing action which washes away decay producing residues. This self-cleansing action hinders the formation of tartar, the forerunner of plaque and the subsequent susceptibility to caries.
Sodium Bicarbonate also has a cleansing action, it is also necessary to make a hard soap and is therefore added during the production of the Weleda soap. Sodium Chloride is also used in some shampoos as a thickening agent.
Sodium carbonate A salt used in some shampoos as a thickening agent
Sodium Chloride is a salt used in Salt Toothpaste. (See Sodium Bicarbonate). Also used in some shampoos as a thickening agent
Sodium Cocoamphoacetate/ Disodium cocoamophoacetate See Detergents
Sodium laureth sulphate See Detergents
Sodium Silicate Water glass. A liquid form of Silica. For properties see Silica
Soft Soap See Sunflower & Olive Oil Soft Soap
Sulphur A finely precipitated sulphur is used, the finest grade of pure sulphur available. Traditionally used to soothe red, itchy skin
Sunflower & Olive Oil Soft Soap Helianthus annuus and Olea europaea soft soap. Weleda makes a soft soap as a base for several products. The soft soap is made by simply adding potash (Potassium hydroxide) to vegetable oils; sunflower and olive.
The soft soap base of the Bath Milks enables the essential oils to work by absorption as well as inhalation. The essential oils are so finely dispersed in the emulsion that they can penetrate the skin.
Sunflower Seed Oil A fixed oil obtained from the ripe fruits of Helianthus annus L., by cold expression or extraction. Lighter than Olive oil, well tolerated by most skin types. In hair care products vegetable oils act help replenish the hairs natural oils and in conditioners are a constituent of the emulsion
Sweet Almond An extract of Prunus dulcis in the form of a ‘milk’ is used in Shaving cream, it helps smooth the skin
Sweet Almond Oil (Prunis dulcis) is pressed from the kernels of the sweet almond. This oil is especially mild, a gentle caring oil which keeps the skin supple. One of the least stimulating oils available and therefore tolerated by most skins. In hair care products vegetable oils act help replenish the hairs natural oils and in conditioners are a constituent of the emulsion
Tapioca Starch This starch, also called cassava starch, is obtained from the roots of Manihot esculenta which originated in Brazil and Paraguay and is now found in most tropical and sub-tropical regions. Starches are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, potato and maize being more common than Tapioca. It is used in body lotions as a thickener, it also has emollient properties
Tincture See Extract
Vanilla Extracted from the pods of Vanilla planifolia a member of the Orchid family, mainly grown in Madagascar or Mexico. The green Vanilla pods are cured for three months to develop their familiar fragrance and taste. Vanilla perfume is extremely tenacious, with a slow evaporation rate, hence the perfume supplied to Lip balm by Vanilla remains long after normal perfumes would have disappeared. Non toxic and well tolerated by most skins, widely used in the food industry
Wall Pepper Sedum acre is collected during the flowering period, particularly June-July. Traditionally used externally to ease inflammation and has a marked Sulphur content
Water (Aqua) Plant extracts are distilled water / alcohol extracts. De-ionised water or tap water is used in body care products. All water is carefully monitored routinely
Witch Hazel Distillate (Hamamelis virginiana) from the leaves and twigs of the plant; it has an astringent and invigorating effect, and aids resistance of the skin to environmental influences
Xanthan Gum is a natural thickener produced by fermentation (using no genetically modified organisms). It is used to stabilise emulsions and improve the feeling of the skin
Zinc Oxide A powder made from pure Zinc which forms a protective barrier and is also a mild astringent with antiseptic properties